Obesity in US

Obesity is becoming increasingly more prevalent as time goes by. The consequences are devastating from a physical point of view but there are other considerations as well such as the psychological toll and other ramifications such as higher insurance costs in some cases and prejudice in obtaining or maintaining employment. To be classified as clinically obese, a person weighs at least 45 kg over their Ideal Body Weight (IBW). There is a link with increased health issues for those weighing 25% more than their IBW.

There are many options available to those who truly want to reduce their weight. These include diets, exercise and even the extreme of Weight Loss surgery when all else fails.

We have tried to gather as much information as possible here on the one site to assist all those people who want to either research obesity or want to reduce thier own weight.

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Eating Disorder

An eating disorder is nothing but a kind of illness related with mental disability. This is a situation when a person eats more and spoils his/her health. in a way which disturbs their physical health. Overeating is the most common and obvious disorder. It’s main cause is lack of self-control. Psychologists prefer to class the other syndromes as “mental disorders”, going by the mental health model that views the syndrome as caused by something largely outside human will. Patients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa have a mortality rate of between 5% and 12% per decade. Mortality rate in eating disorder is higher than any other mental illness. There are many syndromes of eating disorder like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, splurge eating, rumination, pica, Hyperphagia, Kleine Levin Syndrome, and obesity as eating disorders. Over 50% of an eating disorder people suffer from the severe mental depression. The American Psychiatric Association lists eating disorders and severe depression as primary analyzes. Many insurance companies do not recognize this fact and refuse to treat both the eating disorder and severe depression.

People whose eating is disordered in these ways experience psychological suffering, typically becoming obsessed with food, diet and often body image, and their health is at extreme risk due to malnutrition. In the prevailing psychological view, patients with an eating disorder are seen as victims rather than as conscious actors: their suffering is not seen as self-inflicted but as the result of a disease. Most people with an eating disorder attempt to hide their abnormal behavior from others. They do not accept the diagnosis and will refuse treatment. As the treatments prescribed for eating disorders can take decades, mental health advocates warn that early “identification” of these disorders (and diagnosis of the syndrome as being caused by mental illness) may be the difference between life and death for the patient.

The two most familiar types of eating disorder are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Binge eating disorder is similar to bulimia. Large amounts of food are consumed at a sitting but retained in the stomach rather than being regurgitated. Some psychologists also classify a syndrome called orthorexia as an eating disorder – the person is overly obsessed with the consumption of what they see as the ‘right’ foods for them (vegan, raw foods, etc), to the point that their nutrition and quality of life suffers. Some people have food phobias about what they can and can’t eat, which some also call an eating disorder. Another condition which is somewhat qualitatively different from the foregoing is pica, or the habitual ingestion of inedible, such as dirt, wood, hair, etc.

There are many different degrees of anorexia and bulimia. Anorexia may be mild, where a person may eat but only allow themselves certain foods, or severe to the point of literally starving themselves to the point of death. There are other forms of purging besides vomiting- compulsive exercise, laxatives, and enemas being the other main ones. Other sufferers also allow themselves a small variety of foods and exercise compulsively, being categorized as “eating disorder not otherwise specified”.

Women account for 90% of eating disorder cases. Anyone can have an Eating Disorder, but it most often occurs with young teens because they are the most at risk, due to their extreme exposure to the media. Teen’s feelings of need to conform to an idea of beauty that the media projects can be too much for some to deal with and can prompt them to take drastic measures to change their appearance.

Obesity in America

America is the richest and well developed nation in the world. It should be healthy also. But the truth is they, Americans are the unhealthiest on the earth. The fact is they are so busy that they hardly get time to take coked and nutritious food. Almost, every Americans are restricted to restaurants and packed foods. It can be said that the country is plagued with obesity. They just don’t know the value of nutritional food.

According to the survey it is observed that America is comprises of obese people. It has increased by 60% in American adults and the figure is just triple in the childhood obesity. Obesity is considered as the second most cause of death after tobacco- related problems. It causes many other diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer and many more dreadful disease. Native Hawaiians have high rate of obesity and its related problems.

So the question is why Americans are such? Are they not aware of the obesity problems? There is very clear sign that Americans are so busy in their life. American diet and their lifestyles has to be examined properly. Their health is in great trouble because of eating fast-food and microwave dinners. Instead of eating a diet of pure, wholesome foods coming directly from the land, Americans eat a diet of packaged, processed, and refined foods.

It is correct that they produce food in abundant. It can lasts long with the same taste level. But, it lacks in the nutritional value. The packaged food contains high amount of sugar and carbohydrates, as well as many other things that is difficult to name. Americans have become addicted to fast-food restaurants and takes cheap prices, quick service and tasty meals without proper nutrients. Such foods are high in fats and refined carbohydrates and also contains sodium and sugar in high amount. The average adult shouldn’t have more than 65 grams of fat or 2000 calories a day. One meal from Burger King, a hamburger and French fries, has 50 grams of fat and 2000 calories, which is almost enough to fill someone’s fat and calorie quota for the day!

The average child sees more than 10,000 food ads on TV each year, most for high-calorie, high-fat, and high-sugar meals. Not only does the fast food industry spend billions per year on marketing, but also they have infiltrated our schools, signing contracts with them. Our children are bombarded from every angle with these toxic foods making it virtually impossible for them to eat anything else. It is no wonder that we have an increasingly obese population of children (who in time will become an obese population of adults).

Americans have re-defined the word, food. According to the Webster’s dictionary food is defined as any substance eaten, drunk, or otherwise taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, promote growth, etc. whereas American society defines food which is fatty, tasty, processed, refined and contains no nutrients; a substance detrimental to the body’s functions, creating disease, and resulting in death. At no time in history have humans eaten such refined, processed and fatty food and at no time in history have humans had such an obesity epidemic.

Out of necessity, many obese people suffering from various complications and diseases, this leads to change their diet and eating order. Those people, with determination and a will to survive, have succeeded in becoming healthy once again. They have learned that cutting out meat products, processed foods, fast-foods, high sugar and high sodium foods, while incorporating whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes into the diet is the only way to return back to health. It is not easy to go against the strong current of an unhealthy society but it is a necessity.

There is only one way to get fat: we have to consume more food calories than then we expend in activity. It’s an immutable law of nature. What makes a food fat or rich in calorie? Or what makes a person obese? Is it obesity or overweight? So the question arises are Americans eating more, are they less active, or is it a combination of the two? Americans enjoy the most abundant and varied diet in the world. Food is cheap, plentiful and tasty. BMI, body mass index is one of the most used technology to measure the overweight problem. The National Center for Health statistics (NCHS) use body mass index to determine if a person is overweight. BMI is defined as the ratio between height to weight. Many researchers believe that BMI is the best way to determine overweight in the population precisely because it captures the population most at risk of overweight-related health problems.

Despite the millions spent on obesity research and billions spent on quick weight loss diets, Americans are heavier than ever. In fact, 61 percent of American adults are now overweight, up from 45 percent some 20 years ago. What’s more children are following in their parents’ heavier footsteps. One out of eight school-aged kids is obese, twice the fraction of two decades ago. And, experts estimate that one in four is overweight. Overweight in this case is defined as having a body mass index between 25 and 29.9 and obese is defined as having a BMI more than 30. growing waistlines is proportionate to cost of health. It’s estimated that obesity-related diseases cost Americans nearly 100 billion dollars annually. After smoking, obesity and overweight comprise the second most preventable cause of death in the United States .

Diabetes is the disease most closely linked to being overweight. Other diseases associated with too much weight include high blood pressure, various heart diseases and conditions, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and other respiratory problems, and certain cancers.

What can be done to help curb the rise in obesity in this country? Is it a personal issue or a public health issue? Does overweight have to be synonymous with being unhealthy, or can you be fit and healthy at any weight? What’s being done to address this growing health issue? What do successful programs have in common? The nation’s 900,000 restaurants have long been committed to promoting healthy lifestyles and provide an atmosphere in which individuals have the flexibility and freedom opportunity, to choose among a variety of high-quality, safe, healthy and enjoyable menu items. They have become more aware of this dreadful disease and its side effects.

There is a great attention towards this issue for the last few years. Numerous studies have shown that customers want choice and flexibility in the foods they eat. For this reason, restaurants have always offered consumers a wide variety of venues, menu items and portion sizes to accommodate any individual’s dietary needs, tastes and preferences. Good nutrition, education, personal responsibility and choice go hand-in-hand. What is required is a proper understanding of physical and nutrition value. This is the key to combat these problems. Any kind of food can be a part of main diet.

But, the main thing is about the healthy content of the food. It should be properly maintained and proportionate in the nutritional value. The key is balance and moderation, complemented by physical activity. Experts agree that this problem is fundamentally about energy balance-how much we eat in relation to how many calories we burn off each day. This session will review the current status of obesity in America and focus on the how the food service industry is addressing this important situation.

Teenage Obesity

Teenage obesity is one of the emerging problems in front of every parents. This is a common problem seen everywhere in the world. But, this is the most neglected part in the society. Somewhere, Obesity is considered as a sign of prosperity and richness. They just don’t bother about it. But, one has to give importance to it as it’s dreadful disease that has to be handled carefully.

America ‘s physicians are probably underestimating the problem of teenage obesity. As per the survey around 2.1 million teens suffer from the evidence of this dangerous complications of obesity. But, they are unaware of this dreadful and growing disease.

In the last 10-20 years there is a tremendous increase in the obesity among children. Countries like USA , Australia , Brazil and Japan is facing the problem of obesity. It is not possible to determine obesity in children as there is no specific standard for this. But, as per the survey done by the concerned organization, the problem is severe and unstoppable.

One of the major cause for it, is the change in the lifestyles. Today, people are addicted to fast-food, TV, computers and all such issues. They hardly get time for physical activities. It is worth mentioning some of the guidelines that must be followed by the parents.

How to help your children lose weight

There is no specified rule or shortcut for it. It is very simple and general. Some of the basic points are mentioned below:

  • It is very important to change the life styles of kids. Motivate them for more physical activities.
  • Encourage them for the healthy food.
  • Must stop your children from over viewing the television.

It is observed that obesity increases by the amount of time spent on viewing TV. This is surprising but it is a fact. Very less, in fact there is no loss of calories in watching TV.

TV commercials force you to eat more. The average American child sees 10,000 TV commercials a year. Approx 9,500 of these are for one of four types of food: fast foods, soft drinks, sugar-coated cereals and candy.

Too much TV distracts children from the physical activity and development of the body.

Computer games are even worse then watching TV. Not only can they become addictive, but they can be played all day and all night.

Less television for parents too.

It is very important for the parents to schedule their time for TV viewing. They have to keep themselves busy with the children. It does not mean that you spend all the time with kids. But, it is good if you involve them in some household activities with you. Encourage your kids for reading, some creative work, or involve in some community sports and activities. These activities helps to burn lots of calorie from the body.

Plan your time with the kids.

Motivate them for more physically active work.


  • Make yourself active. Involve them in your activity.
  • Do different activity with them,like play football, cycling, skating and swimming.
  • Go for the family walks and hikes, and so on.
  • A good trick to encourage them to take exercise is to ask them to help you to get fit. Ask them to go for a walk with you, or a swim, or a cycle.
  • Promote them to take healthy food.

Be cool. Don’t make it an issue. Handle your child patiently. Ask them to take healthy food make it a pleasurable way for them.

Basic approach

  • Be positive and firm.
  • Be encouraging rather than instructive.
  • Don’t ever compare your obese child with normal child.

Healthy eating must be introduced for an entire family rather than a ‘diet’ for the overweight child.

Always encourage them for exercise and physical activity. They must not feel inferior.

Explain them the benefit of changing the eating habit. Give the examples like it gives you more energy, confidence, friends, clothes and so on.

Talk to them about the changes that they could make. Get them to agree. Don’t impose anything.

Practical suggestions

Encourage them to eat healthy snacks instead of junk foods like plenty of whole wheat cereals, breads of different variety, fresh fruit, fat free yogurt etc.

Give them home made food. If they are very fond of junk food then make it at home and must be fat free. Use lean steak to make burgers, serve on a whole wheat bun with lots of salad. Make your own oven chips by cutting potatoes into thick chips, spray with light cooking spray and cook in a hot oven.

Give them the plenty of options for school food. Discuss with them what they actually like and dislike.

Fast foods can be an option provided you make it healthy by putting low fat toppings.

Mix some fat free milk with whole milk and keep it in a jug.
Make your own popcorn using half the normal amount of oil.

If you know your child loves a particular dish which is high in fat, don’t cut it out completely. Include it in his/her diet every couple of weeks.

Make a healthy fizzy drink by mixing one-third fruit juice with two-thirds fizzy water.

Get a set of ice-pop molds, fill them with fruit juice and freeze for a delicious cool ice.

Ask them to make their own shakes. Use any soft fruit, banana, peaches, raspberries, strawberries, blend with fat-free milk and top with a scoop of low-fat ice-cream.

For a more sophisticated snack, mix dried fruits with seeds – use sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds.

Don’t be so hard on your children if they take fattening food. It can be taken occasionally but teach them the long term benefit of good eating habits.
It will give wrong impact on your child if you constantly talk about weight/dieting. There are many cases of eating disorders in teenage girls who have grown up in a household where the mother is an obsessive dieter.
Ideally, introduce good eating habits to your child as early as possible, but remember it is never too late to start. The wonderful thing about kids is that they adapt to new ideas very quickly. Set a good example for your kids.

Kids learn by example. What they see often try to copy that. So, teach them by setting a good example of your own.

  • Take regular exercise.
  • Don’t sit in front of a TV all day.
  • Find out about nutrition.
  • Buy lots of healthy food.
  • Cook healthy meals.
  • Explain to your kids what makes foods healthy and unhealthy

Obesity Statistics

Nearly two-thirds of adults in the United States are overweight, and 30.5 percent are obese, according to data from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This fact sheet presents statistics on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the U.S. , as well as their disease, mortality, and economic costs. To understand these statistics, it is necessary to know how overweight and obesity are defined and measured.

A number of methods are used to determine if someone is overweight or obese. Some are based on the relation between height and weight; others are based on measurements of body fat. The most commonly used method today is body mass index (BMI).

BMI can be used to screen for both overweight and obesity in adults. It is the measurement of choice for many obesity researchers and other health professionals, as well as the definition used in most published information on overweight and obesity. BMI is a calculation based on height and weight, and it is not gender-specific. BMI does not directly measure percent of body fat, but it is a more accurate indicator of overweight and obesity than relying on weight alone.

BMI is found by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by height in meters squared. The mathematical formula is:

weight (kg) / height squared (m?).

The definitions or measurement characteristics for overweight and obesity have varied over time, from study to study, and from one part of the world to another. The varied definitions affect prevalence statistics and make it difficult to compare data from different studies. Prevalence refers to the total number of existing cases of a disease or condition in a given population at a given time. Some overweight- and obesity-related prevalence rates are presented as crude or unadjusted estimates, while others are age-adjusted estimates.

BMI cutoff points are a guide for definitions of overweight and obesity and are useful for comparative purposes across populations and over time; however, the health risks associated with overweight and obesity are on a continuum and do not necessarily correspond to rigid cutoff points. For example, an overweight individual with a BMI of 29 does not acquire additional health consequences associated with obesity simply by crossing the BMI threshold > 30. However, health risks generally increase with increasing BMI.

Morbid Obesity

The term morbid obesity can be defined by the BMI. If BMI value falls above 39 then a person is considered as obese. Its an ideal situation when a person becomes overweight and ultimately becomes obese. If a person’s weight is between 50 – 100% — or 100 pounds above — their ideal body weight he/she is called an obese. It can be understood by the BMI. That gives clear and better figure. Morbid obesity is also named as severe obesity or extreme obesity. In America 9 million adult are suffering from this chronic disease. Morbid obesity gives rise to several health problems. Often, individuals with morbid obesity suffer with more than one health effect, creating a situation that can shorten life span and negatively impact quality of life.

Morbid obesity is defined as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or more. This equates to approximately 100 pounds more than ideal weight.

Common causes of morbid obesity is as follows

  • Excessive caloric intake
  • Thyroid disorders
  • Lack of physical activity



Hypertension is the most common effects of morbid obesity, which is corrected in up to 66% of patients who lose excess weight.

The risk of coronary artery disease is also higher in the obese population.


These patients have an increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus..

Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ. Adipocytes secrete enzymes important in sex steroid and glucoco articoid metabolism, resulting in excessive levels of androstenedione and estradiol. The hormones lead to feminization in men and masculinization, polycystic ovarian disease, amenorrhea, and infertility in women.


The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea is 12 to 30-fold higher in the morbidly obese than in the general population.


Cancer mortality rates are increased in the morbidly obese compared with the general population.

Mortality rates for obese women are increased for endometrial, gallbladder, uterine, cervix, ovarian, and breast cancers.

Mortality rates for obese men are increased for prostate cancers.

Health Effects

The morbidity and mortality risk are proportional to each other. A person with morbid obesity has highest risk of getting numerous illnesses that reduces the quality of life. It is found that a person gets type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease and osteoarthritis. This all due to the morbid obesity or higher BMI. Morbid obesity causes premature death it reduces a life by 20-year. All the system of body gets affected by this. Morbid obesity can also cause or worsen depression. Some individuals with morbid obesity have low self-esteem and other psychological difficulties attributed to feeling “shunned, insulted and ridiculed by outsiders”.

Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity is a serious problem. It causes many health related issues. Childhood obesity is generally ignored at younger age and then it becomes serious health hazard at adulthood. A proper implementation of its prevention program as well as giving treatment to the child, can reduce the risk of childhood obesity. Parents are required to take proper care about their obese child as only proper guidance can prevent this hazardous health problem. It is their duty to provide healthy and nutritious food to their children. They must abandon fast food or any kind of sticky food. Such food contains high amount of calories in it.

Childhood obesity is very common among the children and adolescents. There are many issues and questions often occurs to one’s mind. It is very complex to decide on the factors concerned with childhood obesity. The most common factors are excess screen time – including television, computers and video games combined with lots of junk food.

Causes of Childhood Obesity:

Childhood obesity arises out of multiple causes. In technical term, it can be described as an improper balance between consumed and expend calories. Consumed means an amount of calories taken. Expend here relates to the amount of calories burn during physical activities. There are certain factors that determines the cause of childhood obesity. They are lack of nutritious food, psychological and family problems.

The Family:

This relates to the obesity in parents. If both the parents are obese, there is a chance of inheritance. It is termed as genetic problems or their eating and exercise behaviors. It is observed that one half of parents never exercise vigorously.

Low-energy Expenditure:

This is observed that children spend most of their time in watching television instead of during some exercise or playing outdoor games. Nowadays, they are restricted to video games or computers. This results in the gain of calories. It is a common phenomena to eat while watching TV. Such activity leads to increase in the calories. It is very important to burn the calories to remain fit. You tend to eat more while screening TV, video games or computers. Such activities should be avoided to get free from the childhood obesity.


This is a common cause of obesity. It is often observed that obesity comes from the family. Because, it is seen that a child, who is active and does not spend much of their time on TV, video games or on junk food is also the victim of obesity. The reason for all this is Heredity. Children inherit their parents physical structure in some cases. Childhood obesity problem can be modified in some cases whereas it remains static in some.

Modifiable causes include:

Less physical activity.
Inactive lifestyles – sitting infront of TV for longer period. That time can be utilized for physical activity.
Status of a family – sometimes family status also leads in childhood obesity.
Eating Habits – eating lots of junk food. Eating while seeing TV.
Environment – Some factors are over-exposure to advertising of foods that promote high-calorie foods and lack of recreational facilities.
Non-changeable causes include:
Genetics – Greater risk of obesity has been found in children of obese and overweight parents.

Treatment of Childhood Obesity:

The main aim of the treatment of childhood obesity is to stop weight gain. So that a child can attain his or her weight over a period of time. It is examined that for 20 percent of extra weight the children has to go through one-half years of weight maintenance program. But it requires early and accurate intervention. Intervention can be of three types:

1. Physical Activity:

stick to a strict physical program. It helps to burn fat, increase energy expenditure, and maintain lost weight. It also requires a proper diet rich in nutrition. Because it is observed that only exercise is not going to reduce the weight. However, exercise has additional health benefits. Even when children’s body weight and fatness did not change following 50 minutes of aerobic exercise three times per week, blood lipid profiles and blood pressure did improve.

2. Diet Management

Any kind of calorie restriction is not advisable for the children. They are not advised for fasting or dieting. Psychologically, this approach is not appreciated by the medical science. It has an adverse effect on children’s growth. Children should take balanced diet and if possible it should be fat free. Nutrition education is very important and necessary to implement. Diet management coupled with exercise is an effective treatment for childhood obesity.

3. Behavior Modification

It is very important to have a proper study of behavior. Behavior modification includes self analyzing, keeping track of food intake and physical activity, eating at moderate speed. Problem-solving exercise must be introduced to learn children more about the physical activities and behavior. Problem-solving training involved identifying possible weight-control problems and, as a group, discussing solutions.

What parents can do?

But, the most important part is played by the parents. They can really work wonder for the children in maintaining their weight. They decide on the food issue where to eat, what to eat and how to eat? So, even a small change can harm the person. This factor have to be clearly decided and implemented.

There are some guidelines given to promote or maintain good health:

Always insist on the food rich in nutrients not in sugar and fat. Take healthy snacks. Food should be never used as a reward or punishment.
Sweetened beverages should be consumed in a limit. As it contains high amount of calories as compared to nutrients. It minimizes your child’s interest for healthier foods.

Stick to a method of cooking that results in a fat free food. For example, bake chicken instead of frying it.

There should be enough green and yellow vegetables, fruits of various colors on your dining table. Instead of white bread use brown (whole-grain) breads. Avoid white carbohydrates food like rice, pasta, bleached bread and sugar (desserts).
Always take family meals together. TV must be avoided while eating.
Children should see TV for not more than two hours a day.

During your child’s physical exams, ask the doctor to show you the growth curves giving percentiles for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). These allow you to compare your child with the norms for age and sex.

Types of Obesity Surgery

Obesity surgery is classified into following two fields:

1. Restrictive
2. Combined restrictive.

Then, there are different ways of performing each surgery, called operative procedures. There could be some side effects of such surgery. So, before going for obesity surgery you must discuss with your doctor and decide which surgery is best for you.

Restrictive Surgery:

It implements bands or staples kind of things to restrict food intake. This is surgically placed near the top of the stomach for a section of small part. This technique is called stomach pouch. A small eraser kind of thing is attached at the bottom of the stomach pouch. Based on the stomach pouch a small amount of food stays in the pouch and you feel full for longer.

Procedure for restrictive surgery:

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG) – This is a the “pure” form of restrictive surgery. It involves creation of stomach pouch. Bands and staples are used in VBG. The most common performed procedure for obesity surgery.

Gastric Banding – It makes uses of band for stomach pouch.

Laparoscopic Gastric Banding or lap-band is approved by the FDA in June 2001. This is less , is a less invasive procedure in which smaller incisions are made to apply the band. The band is inflatable and can be adjusted over time. 7,8,9

Benefits and Risks

Success rate:

Success rate is very high. Somewhere around 80% of patients decrease their weight and 30% reach their normal weight. The long-term weight loss is between 40 to 63% and remains for a period of three year. A three year study with Lap-Band resulted in 62% of patients who lost at least 25% of their excess weight; 52% lost at least 33%; 22% lost at least 50% and 10% lost at least 75%.9


There are some side effects to these. Because, stomach pouch contains only half of a cup or one cup food. Too much eating or unable to chew food properly can cause nausea, stomach discomfort and vomiting. In some cases protein and vitamin deficiency may occur. Heartburn and abdominal pain may happen.


Certain complications may arise like leaking of stomach juices into the abdomen, spleen injury may occur, band slippage, band might get eroded, damage of the staple line and overheating may leads to pouch stretching. Less then 1 percent of patients have been reported infectious or death.

After Surgery

Lifestyle Adjustments:

Patients have to adjust themselves for small amount of food intake. They have to chew the food properly and slowly. If one fails to do so it may cause hurdle in weight loss.

Surgical Follow-up:

Follow-up, especially in the first three months after surgery, is necessary to maintain the proper intake of protein, calories, minerals and vitamins. With proper follow-up care and patient compliance, protein deficiency which typically occurs in the first three months after surgery, can be corrected within 18 months after surgery.3

Combined Restrictive and Malbsorptive Surgery:

This surgery is a mix of restrictive surgery (stomach pouch) and bypass (malbsorptive surgery).

Operation procedures

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RGB):

This is named as RGB. This technique is used for gastric bypass procedure. This is most commonly used procedure after VBG.3. RGB is consists of a stomach pouch for food intake restriction. A direct connection, which is Y-shaped, is made from the ileum or jejunum to the stomach pouch for malabsorption. The longer the segment of small intestine bypassed, the greater the malabsorption component and the greater the weight loss. Gastric bypass with an extensive segment of small bowel bypassed is termed “Long Limb Gastric Bypass.”

Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD):

The procedure is very complicated for obesity surgery. It removes the portion of the stomach. Then ileum is used to connect other part of the stomach. BPD successfully helps in weight loss and this procedure is basically used for a person with excess body weight BMI of 50 or more than that.

Benefits and Risks

Success Rate:

With this procedure patient lose their weight drastically. This is much better than gastroplasty. This is quite clear that patient lose their two-thirds of weight in two years of time. The success rate can be measured in percentage and it falls between 68 to 72% over three years of time. After five years, the average excess weight loss from gastric bypass surgery ranges from 48 to 74%.3

Side Effects:

Here also, the side effects are nausea, weakness, sweating, faintness, and sometime it causes diarrhea. This is due to the “dumping syndrome” where, food quickly moves around the small intestine. There can also be an inability to eat sweets without severe weakness and sweating causing patients to lie down to let the symptoms pass. There are other side effects like dairy impatience, constipation, headache, hair loss and depression.


There is a risk for nutritional deficiencies due to the bypass of the duodenum and part of the jejunum where many nutrients are absorbed. Nutritional deficiencies occur due to malabsorption of vitamin B12. Such deficiency leads to anemia and iron loss. The reduction in vitamin D and calcium absorption can cause osteoporosis and other bone disease. Other complications are similar to those of restrictive surgery and are due to creating a stomach pouch.

After Surgery

Lifestyle Adjustments:

One has to use various nutritional multivitamins supplements. It is important to use such multivitamins for lifelong. The vitamins are vitamin B12, vitamin D and calcium.

Surgical Follow-up: Physical, nutritional and metabolic counseling are needed to prevent nutritional deficiencies.

Other Procedures

Restrictive and gastric bypass surgery are safe and effective over the long-term. Other procedures for weight loss which are usually not recommended include the following:

Intestinal Bypass:- The procedure involves removal of parts of the small intestine. The procedure was very common in the past years. There are experts in this field as well and they prefer it as one of the best options.

Jaw Wiring: – This procedure restricts food intake for the temporary time period without ant kind of respiratory problems. It is very useful for the short-term weight loss. However, weight regain occurs soon after the wires are removed.

Liposuction: – This procedure removes the fat tissue from the body with the help of cosmetic operation. Relatively small amounts of total body fat can be removed safely, however, and little weight is lost.

General Benefits of Obesity Surgery

Surgical techniques have improved by the time period. It improves the safety level, effectiveness and long-term association for promoting weight loss.
93.4% of patients have reported fit out of this procedure. It reported no complication.

Soon after the operations weight loss starts and it goes from 18 months to two years. There are cases that some patients get their weight back in short span of time.

After five years, patients have reported maintaining a weight loss of 60% of excess weight.

There comes drastic change in the patient’s health conditions that they had before surgery.

General Risks of Obesity Surgery

Complications caused by the surgery may be as high as 10 percent or more.
Complications needs a patient to stay in hospital for seven or more days. But, the percentage is very low. It is reported that 1.35% of patients have to stay in the hospital for such a long period. Patients face problem with their heart or liver, injury of the blood vessels in the lungs, infection surrounding the diaphragm area, leaking and bleeding of the stomach and intestines, blood clotting of veins, and blockage of the small intestine.

Gallstones develop in more than one-third of patients as a result of losing a large amount of weight or from losing weight quickly. Gallstones can be prevented by taking medication.

Anemia, osteoporosis and other bone disease are nutritional deficiencies that develop after the surgery due to long-term loss of absorptive function.2 Nutritional deficiencies, which occur in almost 30% of patients, can be prevented with proper attention to vitamin and mineral intake, especially vitamins B12 and D, calcium, folate and iron.

Women of childbearing age should be aware that quick weight loss and nutritional deficiencies can harm a developing fetus.

The VBG and RGB death rate is relatively low. Within 30 days of surgery, death occurred in less than a quarter of one percent (0.17%) of patients in the IBSR database. Pulmonary intercalation was the most frequent cause of death.

Obesity Surgery

Technically or medically obesity surgery is known as bariatric surgery. It works wonder on patient’s stomach. It can make it so small that at a time just a ounce of food can be consumed. It also reduces the calorie absorbing surface of the digestive tract. Surgery could be the right solution for the obesity. In this situation, patients and doctors are required to discuss each and every term of the obesity surgery. One must discuss all the risks and benefits involved in the surgical procedure.

Are you the right person for Obesity Surgery?

You may qualify for obesity surgery:

If your BMI is so high that is of 40 or more or even between 35 to 39.9 and you are suffering from serious medical problem like high blood cholesterol and triglycerides, hypertension, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes and other serious cardiopulmonary disorders. Then you can go for obesity surgery.
Have tried several other methods of weight loss like change in eating order, increment in physical activity and still there is no change in your weight then you must decide on consulting doctor.

If you feel uncomfortable while doing regular work like your work-related and family functions or your life has changed then you must consider obesity surgery.

If you understand the procedure, risks of surgery and effects after surgery.
If you are motivated to making a lifelong behavioral commitment that includes well-balanced eating and physical activity habits which are needed to achieve the best results.